Archive for the ‘Hardware’ Category
Electronic books, also known as eBooks, are big business these days. Magazines, newspapers, fiction books–they can all be read in an electronic format. Gone are the days of piles of periodicals and hardcover books. Now you can put your entire library on an eBook reader.
When it comes time to pick a device to read the eBooks you want, you have plenty of choices. The two biggest competitors are Apple’s iPad and Amazon’s Kindle.
What Is an iPad?
Though the iPad is not a dedicated eBook reader like the Kindle or the Nook, it functions really well in that capacity. The biggest downside for using your iPad as an eBook reader is the price. Since the iPad is meant to be something like a fancy Internet-enabled PDA device, and is stuffed with way more features than your average eBook reader , it costs a whole lot more. iPads go for between $499 and $829. Think of the iPad as a tiny laptop or netbook device–you can download apps and access the Internet on the go.
The iPad has a much larger screen than the Kindle–9.7 inches to be exact. If you’re looking for an eBook reader with a big screen and lots of extra functionality, the iPad is probably your device. If you’re willing to pay four times as much for the iPad than for the top of the line Kindle, go for it.
What Is a Kindle?
Kindle is Amazon’s much-lauded eBook reader device. The state of the art Kindle (with 3G wireless capability) still comes in at less than $200, making it a great bargain especially when compared to the iPad.
The biggest knock against the Kindle when compared to the iPad is fewer functions. There’s no web-surfing or apps to download, but for people who are just looking for a device to read books on, you can’t get much better or more affordable than the 3G Kindle.
At the end of the day, the choice between an iPad and a Kindle comes down to what you want to do with it. If you just want an eBook reader, the Kindle is super-affordable and easy to use. Want more features and don’t care about the price? Pick up an iPad.
SPDIF is normally known as Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format and written as S/PDIF. It is a number of physical layers including a data link layer standard protocol inside a digital audio signal. Digital audio signals are normally between components and gadgets which work over an electrical or optical cable. Both Sony and Philips are credited as the developers behind S/PDIF subsequently it having their company name. As a standard of IEC’s 60958, S/PDIF is technically a modification of the original AES/EBU standard, The AES/EBU was frequently used for consumer use given it furnished small alterations for protocols which resulted in extravagant hardware upgrades.
S/PDIF is normally employed for transporting audio signals like in Dvd as well as Cd players, PC audio cards and vehicle sound systems. It’s also applied to a number of other systems which generally frequently receive and send out stereo digital audio signals.
Audio Data Rate
S/PDIF doesn’t delegate a given resolution or data rate when processing audio signals. The apparatus being used is what has got to designate a data rate, from time to time called a hand shake, from its S/PDIF signal. This S/PDIF is authorized by the equipment which gives off the audio. In order to do this, S/PDIF employs the Bi-phase mark code which may be either 1 or 2 transitions in each bit. This action will likely then enable the world clock to be extracted straight from inside the base signal.
There are several data rates in the S/PDIF protocol. The most frequent happen to be 48khz and 44.1khz that are for stereo CD audio and Digital Audio Tape or DAT, correspondingly. A standard S/PDIF transmission provides up to 16-bit audio while S/PDIF protocols can offer up to 20-bit audio output.
Furthermore, the S/PDIF protocol may possibly be after-marketed to accommodate 24-bit audio output, an extra 4-bit allocation. Alternatively, this is directly or generally supported by S/PDIF. Whenever transmitting signals that are under 20-bit, the unnecessary and remaining bits are shaved off.
S/PDIF data is normally transmitted in a stream as high as 32 bit data word. Within a data frame there are a total of 384 words. 192 of those words are carried through the A stereo channel and the other half from the B stereo channel.
Boundaries of SPDIF
There are several confines within S/PDIF. Both retry facilities and flow control, SP/DIF lacks these simple applications. This as a result limits its audio playback processes. The receiver might also be unable to control the incoming data rate and instead choose to avoid most bit slips. Bit slips are avoided by synchronizing the source clock with conversion rates. S/PDIF can therefore not totally decouple final signals. These signals are impacted by analogue factors. The clock chosen as a origin could also experience jitters along with a wandering effect which could also result in noise and audio distortion. However there are various receivers which can be implemented which will noticeable restrict these influences.
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Data Warehouse often is the common term used in order to make reference to the gathering of information within an corporation. This information is often comprising of transactional statistics including purchase information and other alike items, which are obtained from a single or even several sources. Data Warehouse frequently acquires content from a transactional system comparable to a central data center where data is received and reported for the users contained in the enterprise. Data Warehouses generally may entail some sort of Data Modelling Tool, a Reporting Tool, a Database as well as other facilitating tools. In essence, a Data Warehouse is a collection of information which can be used for reporting.
The Data Warehouse is a vital aspect of an organization because it is a primary DSS or decision support system. DSS can be described as technology used by many companies with the intention to present details, connections together with tendencies which could in turn assist them to establish efficient marketing decisions, figure successful business approaches along with achieve organizational objectives.
Forms of Data
Data within a Data Warehouse is usually often raw or formatted attributable to its use. Additionally , it may contain a wide array of types of data such as an organization’s operational data, sales, copies of information, wages, stock, assets, external data and more. These sorts of information are required to make accurate examinations along with simulations.
Data Warehouse is comprised of several layers: Operational Database layer, Data Access layer, Metadata layer, Informational Access layer.
Operational Database layer
The Operational Database Layer is where Data Warehouse sources data. Organizations regularly have an Enterprise Resource Planning system where by this layer can be found.
Data Access layer
The Data Access layer is the interface where the Informational Access layer and Operational layer are situated. Tools within this layer range from extract, transform coupled with load. This is where data may be accessed inside the Data Warehouse.
This layer is frequently known as the Data Dictionary. The Metadata layer is generally more advanced and comprehensive due to the fact it features dictionaries for the warehouse and data. This can be accessed by using special reporting and analysis tools.
Informational Access Layer
Through this layer details can be accessed for analyzing or reporting functions. The various tools with regard to inspecting and reporting data are also operating out of this layer. It is also termed as the data mart. Business Intelligence tools are additionally present in this layer.
There are various different types of Data Warehouses Models. Types range between Offline Transaction Processing to Offline Analytical Processing. A few tend to be more tough to manipulate versus others mainly because they might need added measures, greater power, or maybe more data to be able to analyze special queries.
Advantages and drawbacks
Each technology and strategy provides both pluses and minuses. One main benefit of a Data Warehouse is so that personnel and employers will be able to observe and obtain any and all data to be able to supply reports, analysis and make vital future business decisions.
One pitfall would be a number of systems might be incompatible with collected data. Many organizations will probably need to purchase and upgrade their particular equipment and software in order to have the highest possible compatibility together with the Data Warehouse.
USB device not recognized is known as a windows error which appears on the screen after a user attempts to link an external device to the system. It occurs if the computer hasn’t recognized the USB device plugged into the system. The USB device might belisted as an unknown device in Device Manager if this predicament occurs.
The flaw may emerge due to one a combination of several of the following factors:
Substandard USB driver modelsNo support for USB 2.0
Supplementary system hardware or configurations that may possibly modify the timing
Malfunction of the host controller hardware
The solutions below may be used to successfully address the issues identified above
1. An unsecure or loose connection is among the most frequent causitive factors of the error USB device not recognized.
The user should remove the current USB device from the computer system should one be attached. This is done because of the possibility that the connection is not secure and has now become loose. The device should subsequently be securely reconnected to the system through a firm reattachement to theÂ USB port.
2. Initiate a system scan in order to address hardware changes in the device manager which may be triggering a situation in which the USB device is not recognized.
The operator should scan for recently installed hardware by manipulatingÂ the Device Manager. This is accomplished by navigating from the start menu to the ‘run’ option. Once the ‘run’ option is clicked the characters Devmgmt.msc should be entered into the pop up box. The option ‘OK’ should then be selected. By means of the action menu, the operator should subsequently click ‘scan for hardware changes’. This course of action is going to prompt windows to scan and point out any devices that were recently installed. As soon as this action is completed the user should ensure that all control panels and previously opened device managers are closed. Just after completing the steps in this process the user should make an effort to ascertain if the system has been enabled to recognize the USB devices or devices.
3. USB Hub Power Management
error eliminating technique demands the disabling of the power management of the USB hub. Adherence to the steps outlined below should result in the disabling of the power management on the USB hub
A. Click Start, and then click ‘Run’.
B. Enter the characters devmgmt.msc in the popup box, and afterwards click Ok. Expand the Universal Serial Bus Controllers’ node,
C. At this point execute the directions below for each listed USB Root Hub:
1. Manipulate the right-click mouse function on the USB Root Hub and thereafter select (by clicking) Properties.
2. Choose the Power Management tab.
3. Hit to clear the ‘Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power’ check box, followed by clicking Ok.
It should be noted that should the ensuing procedure be applied to a laptop computer,Â a reduction in the battery life may occurThe issue can sometimes be resolved by removing the USB device, shutting down the system for a period of twenty minutes before restarting it.
In the event that all the solutions fail, the user should contact the manufacturer for new driver information. This is appropriate since the drivers may need to be updated. Furthermore a hardware failure could exist and in this instance the service of a hardware expert is required.
The standard definition for almost any switch is usually a tool which turns all types of instruments off and on. In the realm of Computer Networking however, this particular meaning may not actually work. In the field of computer networking, a switch is a toll which is used to connect multiple computers to each other. An Ethernet switch is actually a network switch that transmits data at Ethernet prescribed pace. An Ethernet can be described as range of computer networking equipment that happen to be attached with adherence to a precise range of values. Ethernet switch is a member of the group of peripheral gadgets used within the daily running associated with a system. This is facilitated as it is an external tool.
Features of a Typical Ethernet Switch
The switches and hubs must have the ability to carry 10/100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) or 10/100/1000 Mbits ports in order for a device to be considered an Ethernet switch. It ought to be taken into account nevertheless that Ethernet switches can be purchased in bigger units with the the greatest possible size being 10 Gigabites per second (Gbit/s) ports. What is more is that although both switches and hubs are required to fulfill the basic standard switches can have several ports working at various speeds
Ethernet Switch Operations
An Ethernet switch functions like a traffic control center for just about any LAN (Local Area Network) .The connection is carried out by the manipulation of an existing LAN (Local Area Network). The Ethernet switch collects and examines packets just prior to passing them on to the chosen system destination. This would mean that it can ascertain the source, the content of the data and identify the target system location as well. This uniqueness allows it to send information to the appropriate connected system without inadvertently sending it to other locations. This allows Ethernet switch to be economical on bandwith while maintaining superb rates of performance.
Ethernet Switches and Crossover Cables
Crossover devices facilitate the accurate transmission of output signals from transmitting devices to the receiving devices in the form ofÂ input signals. The accomplishment of this feat is attributed to the ‘crossed’ structure of the wires in a crossover table. An Ethernet switch operates in a similar way. An Ethernet switch as a consequence might be estimated to be an instrument that carries out temporary crossover cable connections between computers that desire to communicate with each other. Both devices possess the luxury of not encountering problematic collisions. The reality that the cables employed are ‘straight through’ is important to note. Additionally the crossover operation occurs inside the switch.
Ethernet Switches make use of distinct wires for the purpose of transmitting and getting data. On account of this they facilitate operation in complete duplex mode. This is exactly what creates an opportunity for the transmitting and acquiring of information in the same time frame.
Benefits Over Hubs
Hubs lack intelligence. They don’t undertake processing function. In comparison to hubs, ethernet switches are clever units which happen to have the capacity to interpret the feedback packets that traverse them. Ethernet switches guarantee the economy of bandwith by storing the MAC address of individual hosts and their comparable ports within a table, and intelligently channel traffic towards specified destinations. The prominent advantage that Ethernet switches have over hubs can be found in the fact that they really are swift and current and facilitate full-duplex operation.
RJ is an acronym for Registered Jack that is a network interface tool which can be used while in the telecommunications industry to send and receive data. RJs are connected with aÂ provider via long distance or local exchange carriers. There are various standard sized RJ’s including RK14, RJ48, RJ21 and RJ11. These interfaces are commonly used within North America while some are employed globally.
RJ11 is regarded as the commonly used registered jack. This is a modular connecting wire for telephone usage. This type of registered jack is commonly present in homes and offices in which a regular single line telephone service is often connected. This RJ is available everywhere you go across the globe because of its commonplace usage.
RJ11 cables are normally 6P4C which would mean six positions and four conductors which connect to a junction box. Although RJ11 jacks have 6 positions they only generally use 2 or 4 of them. They can be a path for this standard registered jack to get used with modular connectors so as to ensure that the plug fits. Additional wiring can as well be utilized in other ways such as beingÂ source of an LED indicator, phone bells and selective ringers. There are two kinds of RJ11 (blank) are untwisted which resemble a flat satin-like cable and UTP or Unshielded Twisted Pair.
RJ11 Pin Number and Powered Version
The RJ11 uses the pin number 5 and 2 . The pin number 5 is signified by either an orange or yellow color code while the pin number 2 is signified by either an orange, white or black color code. These pins allow RJ11 jacks to perform on low voltages of AC or DC power. This takes place once the jack is being used to supplyÂ a phone’s terminal. Some terminals function with incandescent lights which require more power than its regular phone line counterparts. A typical output reaches least 5 volts. If your terminal has dial lights the transformer will be needing an output all the way to 6.3 volts of power. Phones like the Trimline and Electric Princess require more power than other telephone terminals.
RJ11 and RJ45
The RJ11 and RJ45 jacks may be compared as similar registered jacks. The RJ45 jack is commonly helpful to connect a system to some network whilst the RJ11 is used in order to connect a telephone system. The RJ45 jack is also bigger compared to the RJ45 and definately will hold additional wires than its brethren.
The rising demand for Ethernet cables for local area networks and Cat6 and Cat5e cables contributed to registered jacks were tested for compatibility. These local area network UTP cables are usually used be analog telephony and computer networking. The RJ45, as aforementioned, is useful in accepting 6 position connectors like RJ11 jacks which coincidentally have total electrical compatibility due to this usage.
RJ11 cables are the in most cases sought out telephone cables in the world as they are utilised in homes and offices of single line telephone connections. If you should own one particular line telephone then it is being connected by an RJ11 jack and cable.
The pace within a processor is usually calculated in megahertz. In just a second a 1MHz CPU can execute one million processor (Central Processing Unit) cycles. The rate of your cpu will depend on on the level of functions that it accomplishes within each and every clock cycle. Essentially therefore a 2MHz processor may or may not be twice as fast as a !MHz processorÂ In reality a 1MHz processor chip could be much faster when compared to a 2MHz computer – when it is more profficient or is actually able to resolve considerably more functions within each product cycle.
processor speed is often inversely related to the proportions of the chip. What this means is that smaller sized chips often run at a faster rate. This is in part attributable to a reduced rate of energy use as well as heat creation. a hot temperature is produced if transistors convert from zero to one or from one to zero. Increased speed capacity allows for significantly more switching and consequently more severe heat. When it overheats, a chip tends to lock up consequently causing computer flaws Graphic designers increase processor speed by lessening the heat produced by relocating chips to smaller circuit sizesThere are also variations in manufacturing that facilitate the speedier functioning of some chips that are created with identical processes and even with the very same wafer. This is known as speed rating and is executed during testing.
Processor Speed and Function
Processor speed is an unreliable indicator of processor performance. This is so because you can find quite a few causes inside and outside of the cpu that apply considerable impact on processor speed, and on the all round functioning of the device. In essence the rate at which the computer will be able to run is impacted by some various factors. A few of these variables are associated with the facets of the processor chip itself. This is because the style and design of the computer dictates the interior timing standards which may in turn dictates the uppermost level of data transfer rate that the processor might offer.
Factors That Impact Processor Speed
Facilitating the quick access of recently used information by the processor isÂ the role of a cache.. Naturally therefore the cache willhave an impact on computer performance (And as a result processor speed) directly. The drawback is that caches also present various difficulties in fundamental comparison.
Some caches are generally bigger compared to others. And bigger caches usually result in remarkable system effectiveness. Nevertheless, this is not always the situation. A cache functions at a particular speed, much like the core of the model. There are caches that operate at the speed of the processor and there are others that function at half or below half of the processor speed. A small cache which has the capacity to function at full speed will be more advantageous than a larger cache which usually functions at only half of the speed of the processor.
The Front Side Bus
The Front Side Bus is one more element which will influence processor speed. It’s called (FSB) and is the link between the processor and system memory. The Front Side Bus functions at a pace which is a percentage of the processor’s clock speed. Top-quality overall performance of the system is achieved with faster Front Side Bus Speed.
System memory is known as RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM has an access speed. Faster RAM means the processor waits less for data. This helps the processor to accomplish at a quicker pace.
Made to function in the capacity of the exterior interface for SATA technologies, eSATA is interpreted as External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. SATA or Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) certainly is the up coming era of drive interfaces. Just before SATA the main technology was basically very similar to ATA (PATA).
Those flat 40-wire parallel cables which happen to be exposed once the CPU is opened are PATA connections. They are used for connecting the hard disk, CDROM as well as other equipment to their distinctive controllers. PATA is known as (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment). This particular connection is actually conventional in connections and has given the world of computers a quality service apart from several negatives.
1. Cables are restricted to a length of 18 inches (46 cm).
2. Limited length is caused in overloaded cases with no air flow and ineffective cooling.
3. The highest parallel transfer pace that the most sophisticated PATA drives can possibly produce is 133 Mbps.
SATA is termed (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment). This technological advancement targeted scores of the disadvantages of its predecessor PATA. It’s structure included thin cables with very small 70 pin connectors. These connectors were restrained in length to 3 feet (1 meter). They can be routed without any difficulty to guarantee the most effective airflow inside the case thanks to the factthat they are less thick than PATA cables. Besides that SATA uses up much less energy (250mV) compared to PATA (5 V). The list below comprises the additional advantages of SATA:
1. The necessity for Master/Slave configurations and drive jumpers is phased out with SATA
2. The setup for SATA is a easier process in comparison to PATA
3. SATA offers hot swapping – removal/addition of drives when your computer is functioning.
This technology far exceeds the two explained earlier on. It is interpreted as External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. The use of eSATA expands the power of SATA. This permits it to comprise external storage solutions. The primary rivals of eSATA are actually Firewire 400 and USB 2.0 (Universal Storage Bus). The edge that eSATA has over its rivals is the elimination of the extra overhead of translating data between the interface and the computer. This is what allows for the enhancement of speed, efficiency of useÂ of processor resources as well as the deletion of the need for an off-load chip. The velocity of the information transfer rates with eSATA triples that of USB 2.0 and Firewire 400. This makes it the ultimate solution for external disk storage.
eSATA just has one single disadvantage and that is essentiallythe reality that its connection is different from that of of competing technologies. This causes the technologyÂ to demmand its own specifically designed connector
eSATA Connectivity Options
A PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) may be installed in a empty PCI slot, if the motherboard does have a built-in eSATA connector. It will operate in the same way as an eSATA interface. If a PC (personal computer) is a notebook, there are certainly various external eSATA device choices readily available deputize. Some of these are; MCIA, PC Card, or ExpressCard slots. The external eSATA instrument alternative picked will dependend on the edition of the notebook.
Prospective buyers should be certain that on the occasion of purchase of a new eSATA controller/bus card, they verify whether it facilitates the actual SATA standard that is required by the SATA hard drive(s) being used. This is important considering that normally with this technology, hardware supporting updated standards will probably be backward-compatible with previous versions; but unfortunately the opposite does not occur.
SCADA is an acronym that means Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.Â Â This phrase is frequently used to depict control and management solutions in several industries.Â Â SCADA accumulates information from a variety of receptors in a manufacturing facility or plant and then transfer the data to a key computer which saves the data.Â Â The principal merit of employing a SCADA system is its capability to keep track of functions in true time.
The word SCADA denotes one primary system, and this system is comprised of the following:
1.Â Â Â Signal devices (both input and output)
2.Â Â Â Controllers
3.Â Â Â Systems
4.Â Â Â Graphical user interface
5.Â Â Â Communications tools and software
A SCADA system does four essential activities.
1.Â Â Â Gathers data
2.Â Â Â Directs data
3.Â Â Â Offers data
4.Â Â Â Supervises functions
The key functions of the SCADA system are carried out by the Remote Terminal Units (RTU) which is comprised of a logic converter that is preset to certain standards.Â Â SCADA systems are seen as exceedingly intelligent and they are capable of operating using minimal human intervention.Â Â The system includes numerous information variables called points.Â Â Each point is a monitor or sensing unit, and they are categorized as either hard point or soft point.Â Â A hard point might be a screen whereas a soft point might be an application.Â Â Information from both hard and soft points are registered and kept for future reference.
A SCADA system features a screen that is called Human Machine Interface (HMI).Â Â This is where the information is offered and observed by a human user.Â Â The user interface has regulators to enable the operator to interface with the system.
SCADA systems are appropriate for managing and tracking processes; from minor functions for instance climate management to major procedures including operating a nuclear power plant.Â Â They are suitable for use where human control would be impractical.Â Â The main benefits of utilizing the system are:
Improve the quality of products
Minimises operational and upkeep fees since less workers should carry out tasks.
The system can be simply integrated into the company
Preserves your capital investment
Below are the areas or industries where SCADA is usually applied across the world:
1. Â Â Â Production:
The systemÂ monitors tasks and quality regulation; manages inventories of parts; control robots.
2.Â Â Â Buildings, Factories and Environments :
The system is used to control refrigeration, lighting and access units.
3. Â Â Â Electrical Power Creation, Transmission and Circulation :
SCADA systems are used to determine current supply, cable voltage, to check the functioning of circuit breakers and also to receive parts of the electricity grid online or offline.
4. Â Â Â Water and Sewage:
SCADA systems are employed by water agencies to evaluate and take care of water flow, the amount of water in tanks and pipe pressure.
5. Â Â Â Mass Transportation
Transit authorities utilize the system to manage electricity to subways, to regulate traffic signals for rail systems, to find and keep track of trains and buses and to deal with the crossing gateways at railroads.
6. Â Â Â Traffic Indicators
The system is employed to regulate traffic signals, traffic movement and any faults in signals.
Normal CPU Temperature
The centralÂ Â processing unit ofÂ Â computers (CPU) is, like every electronics, temperature sensitive .It really is no wonder that a lot of companies have their computersÂ Â in air-conditioned computer rooms at cool temperatures. The cooler the temperature the faster the processors will operate.
The temperature of yourÂ Central Processing unit, (CPU) is crucial simply because thiswill indicate in the event the computer is malfunctioning or whether it needs attention. ToÂ Â findout just whatnormal temperature of the laptop or computeris, a check ought to be done to themanufacturer’s website or search the internet for normal and maximum temperatures for that model. The standardnormal temperatures of CPU must not be above 50 degree Celsius. Temperatures between 95 degree to 100 degree require thermal shut down.
Measuring the Monitor CPU Temperature
To measure the temperature of any computer a check on the mother board documentation to determine should there beCPU thermometer if notÂ Â make use of aprogram called System Information Tool. Other programs installed already may be used. For those who have Everest it can identify all theparts of the computer and check their status for example the temperature. For newer computers or lap tops often haveCPU temperature controlling software. These may be able tocontrol and monitor the temperatures automatically. Accurate values can be obtained.
Protecting your CPU
All electronics really need to be protected from excessive heat to prevent damage.The temperature ofÂ Â the computer may escalate when it is dirty. Try to keep your heat sink and fan clean. Use acan of compressed air to blow out any dusts stuck or accumulated in the heat vent and also on the fan. Dust particles could clog up parts of laptop computerpreventingthe transfer of heat.
Ensure that your computer is ina dust freeenvironment for companies they need tohave maintenance contracts which have regular cleaning of the CPU and otherparts of laptop computer. AirÂ Â can be amajor factor thatdoes promote the performance of one’s computers. The dust or other dirt particles will affect the temperature together withconsequently how quickly or slow the computers operate.
Turning off your personal machine if they are not utilized helps and using a fan may also maintain the CPU within recommended temperatures. The kinds ofÂ Â software to evaluatethe temperatures can also be investigated.Â To cool your laptop or computer you could possibly modify the fan or upgrade to somebigger one. A good idea are often to improvethe powersupply fan.
If your computer temperature rises laptop computerrisk turning off, restart or decrease the pace of .So once it gets hot keep your files and turn off and hold back until it can be cool. Change the location with acooler one.
When this doesn’t work then try checking on the internal parts on the heat sink along with thefans. If you are applyingCPU temperature controlling software they are able to give accurate values but if the temperature goes below If youÂ the recommended values they often not give warning signals.
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