Archive for the ‘Diseases’ Category
What are Muscle Diseases?
Muscle Diseases are also called myopathies. Many kinds of muscle diseases exist and they are widely grouped as Primary & Secondary muscle diseases. Primary muscle diseases are essentially myopathies where the muscular action is impaired by any irregularity among the muscles, such as metabolic activities responsible for maintaining basic nutrition supply for the muscles.
Secondary muscle diseases are myopathies that are precipitated due to another, principal cause such as problems in the nervous system that affects the action of the voluntary muscles. Different types of muscle diseases have been list below:
- Metabolic Muscle Diseases
- Neuromuscular Diseases
- Inflammatory Myopathies
Before knowing the symptoms of syphilis, one should have a basic idea of what this disease is? It is basically a sexually transmitted disease which is caused by bacteria named spirochaete bacterium known as Treponema pallidum and can affect people of both sexes. It has gained a reputation or more appropriately it is notorious of being “the great imitator” because most of the syphilis symptoms resemble the symptoms of other diseases. This is the reason why diagnosing this disease is so difficult. It is also contagious and can pass through intimate sexual contact. Women who are expecting may pass on the infection to the yet-to-be-born child.
The syphilis may pass through 3 distinct stages. There are possibilities that not all 3 of these stages may be observed, one after the other. The phases are listed below and along with them; the syphilis symptoms are listed too:
1)Primary stage- It usually starts with a sore at the site of the infection. This sore is popularly called shanker. It is in the form of a lesion which may appear on the male or the female genitals although all parts of the body are equally at risk. Any person who touches the infection lesion may end up with an infection. It can develop after a month after the first appearance and heals after 1 week. Though the sores may vanish, the disease does not.
2)Secondary stage- The secondary phase develops after a month after the first appearance of chancre. The phase has numerous symptoms, which is the reason why syphilis has the, unflattering name of “the great pretender”. Due to this reason, this phase may go without treatment. These are the most frequently reported symptoms of the phase:
Whole body rash
Patchy hair loss
Swollen lymph nodes
3)Latent phase- This phase is characterized by relapse of the secondary phase of the syphilis. After two years of the latent phase one may not have symptoms and may be completely cured. However one can still transmit infection through blood transfusion. One third people will progress from latent syphilis to tertiary one. During this phase, parts of the body such as brain, skin, bones and the heart are at risk.
4)Tertiary Syphilis- The syphilis symptoms of this stage depends on which part of the body the infection spreads to. For instance, it may spread to nerves, eyes, brain, bones, blood vessels or skin. It can cause the following symptoms:
loss of coordination
As soon as the symptoms of syphilis are observed, one is required to visit their physician. He/she will check for signs of the disease such as skin rashes or chancre. A blood sample will be taken and that is analyzed. The treatment and the prescription depends on the stage of the disease.
Visit here for more information on: Herpes Simplex 1.
Pseudo means false. Applying logic, the name means a false brain tumor. It is mainly caused in the skull due to poor absorption or the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid. Women between the age-group of 20 and 50 suffer from this disease. There are numerous symptoms to this disorder. The major symptoms and signs are listed below:
Ringing in the ears that is in co-ordination with one’s heartbeat
Blurred or dimmed vision
Moderate to severe headache that originate behind the patient’s eyes. This condition is aggravated with eye treatment
Small episodes of blindness
Nausea, dizziness and vomiting
Double vision which is also known as diplopia
Difficulty in side vision
Neck, shoulder or back pain
Seeing light flashes which is also known as photopsia
The usual causes of pseudotumor cerebri are still shrouded in mystery, but it is suspected to be linked with excess of cerebrospinal fluid which is present in your skull. The spinal cord and the spinal cord is surrounded by this fluid, it acts like a cushion to protect important tissues from harm. The fluid is usually produced in the brain but is absorbed in the bloodstream. The possibility of the pseudotumor cerebri may be due to an increased intracranial pressure and this may be responsible for the absorption process that takes place. This happens when there is an increase in intracranial pressure, which may happen when the contents of the skull extends their capacity.
The following factors listed below have been associated with this disease:
Medication- Oral contraceptives, growth hormones, discontinuation with steroids, tetracycline and an excess intake of Vitamin A
Obesity- It occurs mostly in 1 in 100,000 people. Women who are under the age of 44 and are obese are more likely to suffer from this disorder.
Health problem- The diseases which are mostly linked to pseudotumor cerebri are Head Injury, Kidney disease, Lupus, Addison’s disease, Mononucleosis, Lyme disease, Polycystic ovary syndrome, underactive parathyroid glands, sleep apnea and so on.
There are a number of tests that are carried out to diagnose this fake tumor. Some of these exams are listed as below:
1)Eye Exam- If the doctor suspects pseudotumor cerebri, he will look for a distinctive kind of swelling, which is known as papilledema in the rear of the eye. The patient may need to undergo various eye tests to see if there are any blind spots in her vision.
2)Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)- A lumbar puncture-which involves placing a needle between two vertebrae in the lower back which helps to decide how high the pressure is inside the skull.
3)Brain imaging- MRI or CT scans can rule out other problems that can cause similar symptoms such as blood clots and brain tumors.
There are treatments for this disorder too. The medications start with trying to control the symptoms. Weight loss is recommended for obese individuals. If th eye-sight gets worse, there are surgeries to reduce the pressure around the optic nerve.
Visit here for more information on: Symptoms Of Brain Tumor.
Cellulitis is primarily an infection caused by the bacteria. It can cause damage to the connective tissue beneath the skin, and in more unusual cases spread to the lymph nodes. Bacteria can get easily enter the skin through cuts, laceration or scrapes. This disease usually affects the legs, but at times may also affect the face, scalp and arms. The easy way to stop is by taking antibiotics. However, in some cases, the cellulitis may lead to unforeseen complications. At times, it may also be life-threatening.
There are various bacteria that are responsible for this disease. Staphylococcus and the Streptococcus and other smaller forms of bacteria such as haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus and the clostridium are also responsible for causing cellulitis infection. At times, abrasion present in the skin may also cause an infection. Sometimes it does not even require an injured site. It may develop over a smooth patch of skin that had been the site of a previous infection such as athlete’s foot or eczema. Or, if there are tattooing, skin rashes, insect or animal bites. AIDS, radiation and diabetes are also known to have caused this disease.
The other bacterium which is responsible for the spread of cellulitis infection is staphylococcus aureus bacteria, also known as staph. Once the bacteria or the pathogen enters, it makes its way deeper into lymph nodes and the blood stream and makes its way throughout the body. This can lead to sweating, bouts of cold and cough, high fever and so on. There are numerous risk factors for this disease such as injury or trauma with a break in skin surface, cracks or peeling skin between toes, insect bites or stings, ulcers from diabetes, or blockage in blood.
Symptoms of cellulitis infection are manifold. Some of them are pain or tenderness in the area with sores or rash. The signs of infection include fatigue, general ill feeling, chills, shaking, warm skin sweating, muscle pain. The skin sore or the rash grows quickly within 24 hours, comes on suddenly and usually has sharp borders. There are other signs such as hair loss at the site of the infection, nausea and vomiting and joint swiftness which is caused by swelling over the joint. The area that is affected looks red and has warmth over the redness and has tight, glossy and stretched appearance of the skin.
How does one diagnose this disease appropriately? During the recommended physical examination the doctor may find swelling and drainage if the infection is around a skin wound, swollen glands and redness warmth and there may be swelling. The tests that are used are a complete blood count also known as CBC and blood culture.
The disease may not be serious, but the person may require a hospital stay if one is very sick such as persistent high blood pressure, nausea and vomiting and very high temperature. It is brought under control with close follow up and oral antibiotics. The treatment focuses on preventing complications and controlling the infection.
Read here for more information on: Herpes Simplex 1.
Brain tumor is a disease in the brin where cancer cells may develop in the brain tissue. The cancer cells may grow to form a mass of cancer tissues which is also known as a tumor. This tumor interferes with brain tissue functions such as sensation, memory, muscle control or other usual body functions. Tumors that primarily comprise of cancer cells are called malignant tumors and the ones that are composed of of benign tumors. The cancer cells that develop from brain tissues are called primary brain tumors. The numbers prove that the disease is not rare and is likely to have chances of developing in approximately 20,000 people every year. There are usually two types of brain cancer. The primary brain cancer starts in the brain whereas the metastatic brain cancer starts in the body and moves to the brain. Tumors can either be malignant with cancer cells that can grow quickly or benign with no cancer cells.
The primary brain cancer hardly spreads beyond the central nervous system. Death may occur from uncontrolled tumor growth within the limited space of the skull. The metastatic brain cancer indicates that the disease is advanced and has a poor prognosis. These tumors are made of cancerous cells from a tumor which is present somewhere in the body. The cells are spread to the brain from another tumor in a process called metastasis.
There are various symptoms of brain tumor. They may damage neurological pathways and may compress and invade brain tissue. The symptom develop over a period of time and the traits of the symptoms differ depending on the actual size and the place where the tumor is located. The disease is not very painful in the beginning. However as the size increases, the person may experience slight discomfort in the beginning and then later extreme pain as the cancer corrodes the other structures in the body. There are a few telltale signs that tell that there is something wrong with the body. But before jumping to conclusion, one nees to visit the doctor to be diagnosed correctly. For instance, signs such as rapid breathing rate, abnormal breathing and fever may be pneumonia.
The symptoms differ from place to place. Listed below are the different areas in the brain and corresponding symptoms of brain tumor:
Inability to write
Lack of recognition
Tumor in the temporal lobe may cause impaired seizures and speeches. Whereas a tumor in the brainstem may have the following symptoms
Difficulty speaking and swallowing
Behavioral and emotional changes
Loss of hearing
Muscle weakness on one side of the body
Drooping eyelids, vision loss
Symptoms of brain tumor in meninges (meningioma) do depend on which area of the brain is under pressure. Some include:
Mental and emotional changes
The lung is a very vulnerable organ and it is susceptible to various diseases. One of these diseases is acute bronchitis. It is mostly caused by viral infection, which settles in the lungs. It may also be caused by bacterial infection. They may also result in the inflammation of the passages which are known as bronchi and bronchioles. Inflammation and the infection of the bronchi lead to symptoms that can include fever, yellow or white phlegm and shortness of breath. There are numerous complications of this disease such as pneumonia which have serious complications such as death.
acute bronchitis is a pretty common disease which can occur at any time of the year, but usually happens in the colder months. It is usual in old people, young children and infants. It is mostly common in people who are smokers or who have been exposed to air pollution, on a fairly regular basis. Also, people suffering from congestive heart failure, emphysema and lung cancer are also at risk.
The diagnosis of the disease of acute bronchitis is very thorough. It begins with a complete check on the medical history of the patient, which include exposure to lung irritants and smoking history. Physical examination usually involves listening to the sound waves made by a lung, through a stethoscope. A cracking, bubbling or a wheezing sound indicates the presence of bronchitis. A sample of phlegm taken from the patient is tested to detect the presence of bacteria or other germs. People, who have a serious case of this disease, need to undergo an arterial blood gas test. In this test, a sample of blood is taken from an artery to measure different criteria such as effective breathing
The symptoms usually start when a person is suffering from flu or cold. They are usually characterized by excess mucus drainage from the sinuses, a general weak feeling and a burning throat. One may also have a slightly high temperature too. One can experience an uncomfortable feeling in the bronchi or trachea, which is intensified by wheezing or coughing. It is usually a cause for concern when people begin to notice blood in their sputum. The blood is usually caused due to the inflammation in the bronchi walls which are under great pressure when a patient coughs. The main symptoms of this form of bronchitis are listed as below:
Larger volumes of green or bright yellow sputum
A prolonged cough
Symptoms of systemic disease (the whole body is ill)
The pertinent question is what is the treatment for this disease? By following a steady diet pumped with adequate E, C and A. Avoiding exertions are common sense measures. If experience just fever, one should have plenty of bed rest. A doctor should be called when the symptoms remain, longer than usual and if the patient is experiencing shortness of breath or feeling weak. If one follows certain precautions and basic treatment, the disease can be brought under control.
Read here for more information on: Symptoms Of Bronchitis.
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries or ACL injuries are the over-stretching or rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee. A rupture can either be complete or incomplete. The knee shares certain similarities to a hinge joint and is located at the junction, where the end of the thigh bone (femur) meets the top of the shin bone (tibia). There are 4 major ligaments that connect these two bones. They are listed as follows:
Lateral Collateral ligament- It runs on the outer part of the knee and prevents the knee from bending outward.
Medical Collateral Ligament- runs on the inner side and prevents the knee from bending inwards
Posterior cruciate Ligament- It works with the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). It prevents the tibia from sliding under the femur.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament- It lies in the middle of the knee. It usually stops the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur and provides rotational stability to the knee.
The PCL and the ACL cross each other within the knee which forms a cross-like structure and hence called cruciate ligaments. The ACL injuries often occur with other kinds of injuries. Usually, the ACL ruptures with MCL and medical meniscus (one of the shock absorbing cartilages). This injury is prominent amongst skiers and football players. It is more common in women than men. This is mainly because of the difference in anatomy and muscle function. The ruptures may occur due to non-contact or contact. A single injury to the side of the knee during football may result in ACL injuries. There are other causes too. When coming to a quick stop combined with sudden change in the direction while running, landing from a jump, pivoting can also cause injury to the ACL.
There are numerous symptoms of ACL injuries. Some of them are listed as below:
Pain on the outside and back of the knee.
Feeling or hearing a pop in the knee at the time of the injury.
Limited knee movement because of swelling or pain or both.
The knee feeling unstable, giving out or buckling
The knee swelling within the first few hours of the injury. This is usually the sign of internal bleeding. If there is a swelling, it is a sign of serious injury.
Although ACL injuries are serious, it is treatable though. It can be treated through the method of R.I.C.E.R. It is an acronym that stands for R=Rest, I=Ice, C=Compression, E=Elevation and R=referral for appropriate medical treatment. There are two points which are very important:
1.Rest- Once ACL is diagnosed, it is important to give the knee sufficient rest. Any movement can worsen the condition.
2.Ice- The basics of first aid. The application of ice will work wonders to reduce swelling, bleeding and the pain.
There are minor differences in the injury patterns of children and women. Adults usually pull the ligament off the femur bone and children usually tear the ACL with the piece of bone attached.
The brain is a powerful machine. It is also the most important part after the heart. The brain requires constant pumping of glucose and oxygen from the bloodstream. A cerebrovascular accident also known as a stroke, occurs when blood supply to a part of the brain stops. This results in the death of brain cells. There are numerous ways a stroke may occur. Some of these ways are listed as below:
The small arteries that narrow down within the brain causes a lacunar stroke. The blockage of a single tissue affects a tiny area of brain which causes the tissue to die.
There are several vessels which carry blood to the brain. One of them are the arteries. If the arteries responsible for carrying the blood to the brain, harden this may cause a stroke. There are two important components in the arteries- the anterior circulation which controls sensations, motor activity, speech, thought and emotion is in the cartoid arteries. Whereas posterior circulation is chiefly for the areas cerebellum and the brainstem which are controlled by vertebrobasilar arteries. If these are damaged in any way, they may cause a stroke too
Embolism- In extreme cases, blood clots form within the heart and there are million chances for them to break off and block arteries.
There are other causes that might cause a stroke. It is important to know the kind of stroke one has suffered from, so that it is easy to provide the appropriate stroke treatment. For instance, a stroke can be caused by celebral haemorrhage. This is caused when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the brain tissues, adjacent to them. This results in loss of blood and oxygen to various parts of the brain.Then there is subarachnoid haemorrhage, in which, the blood acumulates beneath the arachnoid membrane. The symptoms are usually nausea, vomiting, severe headaches and a stiff neck. If not offered the proper stroke treatment this may result in the death of a patient or coma. The third form is a rare condition which is known as vasculitis which results in the inflammation of brain tissues causing them to reduce the blood supply to the brain.
There are different symptoms that show which part of the brain has been affected and which brain tissues have been affected. Once these symptoms manifest themselves, it is recommended to provide the corresponding stroke treatment as soon as possible! There are different treatments available. It is a disorders which requires immediate attention so do the following in case of a stroke:
Calling the emergency number 911. This is the number for the emergency medical transport.
Treatment for acute stroke must be given as soon as possible, since it is a fatal disease
In case somebody is having a stroke, refrain from waiting to see if the symptoms go away.
Do not call the General Physician
Aspirin does not so help. It may be injected later, if needed.
Read here for more additional information on: What Causes A Stroke.
The human heart is a very delicate organ and one of the most important part of the body. Since it is the most vulnerable it succumbs easily to fatal disorders such as heart attacks. To prevent the occurence of such attacks, the cardiac diet is prescribed for people, who are at a constant risk. People with a vulnerable heart have heart diseases or history of heart diseases such as dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, previous heart attacks or obesity. The diet mostly focusses on the way to reduce the intake of unhealthy food and maintaning a balance. For instance, it is recommended to cut down on beverages since this contains excessive amount of sodium. To balance that, one can eat fresh fruits and vegetables or fruit juices.
What exactly comprises of a cardiac diet? The anwer to that differs from person to person. Each person’s metabolism is different, so a person needs to consult with his dietician to follow the prescribed diet. However there are a few ground rules that can be applied to every diet:
1)Use trans fat free margarine as a substitute to butter
2)Reduce intake of food rich in animal fat
3)More fruits and vegetables
4)Before consumption of packaged food, make sure the trans fat is marked 0 on the label
5)Fish as an addition to the diet
6)Try to reduce the amount of sodium in food
7)Stop consuming caffeine
Apart from food, cardiac diet is about maintaining a level of mobility as a part of the regime. Translated, one needs to excercise to keep oneself healthy. Stress plays a major role in frequency of inducing heart related disease, so it has been recommended to deal with it in different ways, instead of avoiding it. Relaxation techniques also help people deal with stress that can, otherwise prove to be fatal.
There are some pointers that come in handy and which dieticians all over the world recommend. They are listed as belows:
Fat Intake- This is the foremost rule that applies to every diet, including cardiac diet. Fat is a healthy constituent, but the intake of some fats such as animal fats should be reduced since it adds the added calories. There are some fats that are classified as unhealthy fats such as monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, trans fats and saturated fats. Monounsaturated fats is found in products such as avocados and olive oil. They help to lower the artery clogging cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fats are found in fish and grain products. Trans fats are chemically processed and although they help to preserve food, but they cannot be digested easily by the body. And last of all is saturated fats and they are found in cheese, meat, palm kernel oil and coconut oil.
Fiber content- Fiber or high fiber content in one’s diet helps to lower the high cholesterol in the body to make the heart healthy and reduce the risk of heart attacks. Men and women under and over the age of 50 have different measurements for fiber consumption. Fiber is usually found in commodities such as legumes, vegetables and fruits, nuts and seeds and grains.
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B12 is a vitamin that is necessary for normal red blood cell formation, cellular and tissue repair and DNA synthesis. A B12 deficiency syndrome reflects a shortage of this vitamin. As the body stacks upto 3 to 5 years worth of B12, it takes some time, for the symptoms to manifest themselves. Children and infants show the symptoms of this defiency more rapidly. This vitamin is very essential to good health. It helps the body produce a normal blood count. When there is a lack of this particular vitamin, it usually means one is following a diet that has less B12. It can also be caused due to the Crohn’s Disease which limit the amount of B12 absorbed by the body.
To absorb vitamin B12 from food is complex. Thus a defect in the absorption method can become a cause of deficiency. The absorption often takes place in the stomach area, where pepsin and gastric acid help release cobalamine from animal proteins. Vitamin B12 absorption also occurs in the muth where it may bind to the R protein present in the saliva.Alkaline pH and pancreatic enzymes also have a tendency to reduce absorption. The two compounds may help to digest the cobalamine-R protein complex before the absorption process, and B12 is bound to the intrinsic factor (IF) to form an IF-colabamine complex.
There are two types of sufferers from B12 deficiency syndrome. The first group is comprised of asymptomatic vitamin B12 deficiency and the other group is hematologic vitamin B12 deficiency. To circumvent that, there are may sources of this particular vitamin. It is mostly obtained from animal proteins such as poultry, eggs, fish, dairy and red meat. Vegetables and plants are not popular sources of the vitamin, unless the plants have been infected with soil microorganisms, in that case, they may be considered as an exception.
There are various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency syndrome. One of the biggest tell-tale signs is the feeling of fatigue. There are also gastro problems such as dyspepsia or diahoerra or recurring ulcers in the stomach. There can be nausea sensations accompanied by gas accumulation, which may lead to bloating of the stomach. A patient may lose or gain weight depending on the way they react to the lack of the vitamin. Other symptoms may also include loss of memory, insomnia, lack of balance, depression, liver enlargement, headaches, eye problems, hallucinations, breathing difficulty, inflamed tongue, neurological damage and so on.
To combat anaemia, a person suffering from this syndrome can be given folic acid to rectify this condition. Also, one can be given an injection, to increase the levels of the required vitamin in their blood. This particular procedure can go on for a while if the levels of B12 do not remain constant.
The B12 deficiency syndrome in most cases, cite the cause of OCD, i.e., Obsessive compulsive disorders as one of the neurological disorders, prevalant in children and adults. Vitamin B is also known for an immune and healthy nervous system along with good vision and healthy skin.
Read here for more information on: Vitamin Overdose.