Archive for the ‘Science’ Category
With shows such as Castle and Bones gaining popularity, the field of forensic science have suddenly gained ranking on the popularity ladder too. The sudden emergence of forensic has led many to believe that it is a recent addition to the field of science. But the truth is far from that. What is forensic science, exactly? Forensic scientists have been working alongside detectives and crime inspectors for many years. The field gained prominence back in 1784, when the police found a wad of paper in a victim’s head wound, which incidentally matched the newspaper in the murderer’s pocket, which helped the police to nab him.
The term is an umbrella term that covers broad range of specialities such as physical, digital and biological data and uses scientific techniques for legal purposes. If the term is used loosely, it covers all forms of policing such as food and substance regulation to criminal investigations. It is the application of some basic criminology science to the enforcement of laws within the criminal justice system.
To understand What is forensic science it is necessary to dig deeper, literally. It took a step ahead in the detection and prosecution in the beginning of the twentieth century. It took an even bigger leap in its field when molecular genetics developed enough to concept of technologies of DNA fingerprinting which was pioneered by 1984. Once this technique became common with the police enforcement, it played a major transformative role in detective fiction. This elevated the significance of amateur detectives and the characters of policemen were added as either foil to the detective or as bumbling comic characters, such as Thompson and Thomsons in the comic book Tintin.
The origins of modern forensic science, as mentioned above, dates back to centuries but one of the most significant developments was the creation of FBI forensic science laboratory in 1932. This is one of the largest laboratory dealing with forensics. Not to mention, the various crime labs at state, county, municipal and federal levels are modelled around the FBI laboratory.
What forensic science is, involves capable to change and its disciples should be able to adapt to change. It is challenging and is prone to evolution. If a person is not susceptible of change, he will have to, since this field of science is different from all other fields,. Along with physical exertion, there are psychological factors too. When forensic scientists deal with a crime, they not only establish the time, date and weapon used to commit the crime, but also the reason or motive for the murder. To top that, they also need to establish the psychological profile of the culprit too. Forensic scientists also need to have a working knowledge of the law too, to know if the conclusion they come up with, can be admitted in a court of law.
These scientists also need to every step they take with utmost care and precision. At times, they may be called upon to explain the purpose of their actions. This field is great for people who have an interest in crime and psychology. It is an excellent line if one likes working his/her brain cells and apprehending criminals.
From as early as the 1950â€™s there have been reports of people finding alien babies both deceased and living and there are quite a few web pages on the internet dedicated to suspected alien life forms. These sites feature numerous pictures claimed to be pictures of actual aliens that have been found throughout time.
There are many people who believe unconditionally that these pictures of grown up and infant aliens are authentic while others believe that they are elaborate hoaxes. Some say the children are malformed, while still others believe that they are ordinary human babies with diseases or deformities.
Whatever they are, the fact is that some movies and images cannot be classified such as the movie of the alien baby discovered in 2007 by a farmer in Mexico named Marao Lopez. He is said to have discovered the alien infant alive and drowned it in a ditch out of panic because it looked so bizarre. Lopez claimed that it took 3 attempts to drown the creature and that he had to keep it beneath the water for a couple hours before it finally stopped breathing.
The carcass was handed over to university scientists who performed DNA tests and scans to try and identify the corpse. Two years afterwards the researchers released the outcome of their test which they argued showed that the creature is not human. They say the bones of the creature has lizard-like characteristics but its teeth do not have any roots such as humans, it has a few similar joints to humans, and it would be able to keep beneath the water for an extended time.
The animalâ€™s eyes, ears and cranium were said to be larger than that of other upright earth animals and it was covered in a thin layer of skin. The rear section of the animals brain especially was huge and therefore scientists concluded that the creature was very intelligent. However, by the time the remains of the creature was given over to researchers they said it had decayed too far to produce any coherent DNA results.
To further add to the obscurity surrounding the extraterrestrial baby, Lopez was afterwards found burnt to death in a parked vehicle on the side of the road. It is said that the fire was a far hotter temperature than that of normal fires and it is thought that the guardians of the alien infant are the ones accountable for Lopezâ€™ death as revenge because he killed the creature.
It is stated that there are many UFO sightings and crop circles in the vicinity where the alien babies were discovered and that there was a another alien present when Lopez discovered the creature but that the other creature ran away. Some believe that the child was left behind deliberately by aliens but there is no clarification as to why.
While there are some who firmly believe that the extraterrestrial baby is real, others are doubtful and do not consider the evidence to be enough. Check out the images and videos and you decide on your own.
Building a volcano is a quick and easy technique to see the principles of a real volcano up close and personal without actually enduring the dangerous gases and molten lava a real volcano make. Thus if you are interested in making a volcano or you are required to build one as a science project or something, here is all you need to know to build one using things available around your dwelling.
How To Build A Volcano
6 cups of flour
2 cups of salt
4 tablespoons of cooking oil
2 cups of tap water
Red food coloring
Plastic soda bottle (2 liter or smaller)
Plastic decorations (trees, shrubs, rocks, etc)
Begin with the dough, which will make the mountain of the volcano. You can purchase play dough or some other kind of pre-made dough if you prefer however, since these instructions are for items you probably have readily available at home. You can make your own dough using the flour, salt, cooking oil and tap water. Your dough must be smooth and firm so that it is easy to shape.
Place the baking dish/plywood on a flat surface to function as the base of your volcano (a baking dish might be best as it will enclose the lava when it overflows and minimize the amount of lava you have to clean up).
Place the soda bottle on the base you select and begin molding the dough around it to make a mountain. If you do not have adequate dough to wad the mountain and make it as big as you choose you can place cardboard, wads of newspaper or like materials around the sides of the bottle to take up some of the space.
Take the cover off the bottle if you have not previously done so and take the dough all the way up to the top of the bottle so that the bottle is entirely hidden. You can make channels in the side of the mountain for lava to run down, or whatever else you choose to make the mountain more authentic.
Let the dough-mountain to dry completely and then use brushes to paint the mountain or spray it with spray paint. You can then place the plastic decorations around the mountain and on the sides to decorated it to your liking, then it is time to move on to the explosion of the volcano.
Fill the bottle to about Â¾ with the warm water and put in the red food coloring. Put in about 6 drops of the dishwashing detergent to make the foam part of the volcano, 2 tablespoons of baking soda, and then throw about a Â¼ cup of the vinegar inside the bottle and stand back and see the eruption happen!
You can use and reuse the volcano as many times as you wish, all you need to do is use a rag to clean up the lava flow and it is ready to go again.
Tips and Warnings
Be cautious not to drop dough inside the bottle as you make the mountain as the dough may interfere with the mixture used to make the volcano explode.
The water in the bottle does not have to be hot however, the warmer it is, the greater the eruption will be.
If you desire orange-colored lava, add a few drops of yellow food coloring besides the red coloring inside the bottle.
Put in more than 2 tablespoons of baking soda if you desire an even larger explosion but be ready for the additional clean up!
Do not try to close the bottle once you add the vinegar because pressure may grow within the bottle and make it burst.
Learning build a volcano is an interesting and exciting science project to take up!
Formic acid scientifically called methanoic acid is the simplest form of carboxylic acid and also a aldehyde, Its chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. Its name derives from the Latin word for ant, which is formica, because of its early separation by the distillation of ant bodies. It can be naturally accessed in the venom of bees and ant stings and is also an important intermediate in chemical synthesisas well as salt can be obtained from it named formate.
Formic acid is primarily used in the food production as a additive and germicidal agent in livestock feed. It also used for spraying on fresh hay or other silage, to eliminate certain decay processes and cause the provision to further preserve its nutritional value, so it is widely used to maintain winter feed for cattle. It is regularly applied to chicken feed to exterminate salmonella bacteria.
Outside of the food business Formic acid is also used within the chemical industry as a chief source for a formyl group for example in the formylation of methylaniline to N-methylformanilide in toluene and in synthetic organic chemistry, as a supplier of hydride ion and also as a source of hydrogen in the hydrogenation production. It is used to process organic latex into raw rubber. Beekeepers use formic acid as a miticide against the Tracheal (Acarapis woodi) mite and the Varroa mite. It is also utilized in the textile industry for tanning leather. Some formate esters are artificial flavorings or perfumes as well as an effective element in some kinds of domestic lime scale remover. It is used in research centers as a solvent modifier for HPLC and CE isolation of peptides and proteins, particularly when the sample is being arranged for mass spectrometry analysis. Formic acid has also been reportedly used to create fuel cells.
Like formic acid, another substance called oxalic acid can be used by beekeepers as a miticide against the parasitic Varroa mite. Oxalic acid is a chemical compound known as a dicarboxylic acid which is a colorless solid which is about 3,000 times more potent than acetic acid. Oxalic acid is typically found as the dihydrate and along with oxalates are found abundantly in a lot of plants. Oxalic acid’s is main used as a cleaning or bleaching solution, especially for pulpwood and for the extraction of rust or iron from minerals specimens. Many domestic chemical produce contain oxalic acid, especially rust proofing treatments. About 25% of the oxalic acid produced is used as a acerbic acid in the dyeing processes. Oxalic acid is also an important solution in lanthanide chemistry.
Oxalic acid is also used for renovating old wood. It is used for its reducing qualities in platinotype and the early photographic platinum/palladium printing practice. A small percent of oxalic acid, known as vaporized oxalic acid, is used in sugar syrup. Hydrated lanthanide oxalates forms quickly in strongly acid agent in a solid crystalline easily filtered form, largely free from contamination by non-lanthanide elements. When lanthanide oxalates is ignited and metal oxalates decomposes it is converted to the oxides, which are the most popular form in which the lanthanides are sold.
The main health hazard of formic acid is exposure to skin and eye from potent vapor or fluid. Most of formic acid is not ignitable and diluted formic acid is on Americas Food and Drug Administration record of food additives. Formic acid can be easily digested and eliminated by the body even though its toxins can still cause effects. The formic acid and formaldehyde developed as metabolites of methanol are responsible for optic nerve damage which leads to loss of sight seen in methanol poison. There are also some chronic effects associated with formic acid displayed in experiments which have displayed as a mutagen. Chronic exposure may eventually cause liver or kidney damage and skin allergies that appear upon re-exposure to the chemical.
Learn about the basic differences between acids and bases.
Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen and chlorine, otherwise called, hydrogen chloride (HCl) which can be accessed from water. This chemical is a highly acidic, strong, mineral acid which is naturally found in gastric acid which is one of the primary elements that functions in the intestinal tract to break down food and dispose of waste matter. Gastric acid also functions in the body as a barrier against microorganism in order to prevent infection. The gastric acid consists primarily of hydrochloric acid which acidifies the stomach contents. Chloride (Clâˆ’) and hydrogen (H+) ions are excreted individually in the stomach section which rest at the top of the belly by parietal cells of the gastric mucosa into a secretory network called canaliculi before it enters the stomach lumen. After leaving the abdomen, the hydrochloric acid of the chyme is neutralize in the duodenum by sodium bicarbonate. The intestinal tract is guarded from the strong acid by the release of a thick, protective mucus layer, and by secretin induced buffering with sodium bicarbonate. If hydrochloride is sent to the esophagus, it can irritate the coating of the esophagus and lead to the feeling like peptic ulcers or heartburn.
Outside of being naturally developed in the body, hydrochloric acid is repeatedly used as a potent inorganic acid in many industrial manufacturing. Throughout the Middle Ages, it was used by alchemist in the quest for the philosopher’s stone, and afterwards by European scientists such as Davy, Glauber and Priestley in their scientific researches. In the past it was called â€˜muriatic acidâ€™ or â€˜spirits of saltâ€™, produced from vitriol and regular salt. Hydrochloric acid became popularly used at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when it was used in the chemical business as a chemical agent in the extensive manufacturing of vinyl chloride used to make PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane.
Hydrochloric acid is mainly used to produce chlorides, for distilling ore in the production of tin and tantalum, for the storage and cleansing of metal produce, in electroplating, in eliminating scale from boilers, to deactivate basic systems, as a laboratory agent, as a catalyst and substance in organic syntheses, in the manufacture of stimulants and dyes, for hydrolyzing starch and proteins in the organization of certain food goods and in the photographic, textile, and rubber business. It is also used in many smaller-scale application, including domestic cleaning, production of gelatin and other food preservatives, descaling, and leather processing. About 20 million metric tons of hydrochloric acid is produced annually.
Potassium nitrate which is a chemical substance is also utilized to safely store food as a common ingredient of salted meat since the Middle Ages, but its use has been mostly ceased and substituted with sodium nitrate (and nitrite) because they are more reliable in safeguarding food against bacterial infection. However, it is still used in some food products, such as charcuterie and the brine used to create corned beef. Potassium nitrate was also used long ago for a number of burning fuses, including slow matches, fertilizer in amateur rocket propellants, and a number of fireworks such as smoke bombs. The major commercial supply of the nitrate ion from the Late Middle Ages through to the 19th century is decaying urine.
As a fertilizer, potassium nitrate is used as a contributor of nitrogen and potassium, which is two of the major minerals for plants. Potassium nitrate is also the main component for tree stump remover because it accelerates the natural decaying of the stump. It is used as a solution in the heat treatment of metals in the post-wash. It works good as a short-term rust inhibitor because of its capability to oxidize, water contents at a low cost. It has also been used in the manufacture of ice cream and can be found in some toothpaste especially made for delicate teeth. Potassium nitrate is also one of the three components of black powder, along with pulverized charcoal and sulfur, where it acts as an oxidizer.
Many people aren’t aware that oxalic acid is a less corrosive acid.